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  • Writer's pictureColin Dubel

Different Calculations used in CRE Financing

There are several calculations used in commercial real estate financing to determine the financial feasibility of a project and to assess its profitability. Some of the most common calculations include:

  1. Net Operating Income (NOI) - This is the income generated from a property after all operating expenses have been deducted. NOI is an important measure of a property's profitability and is used to calculate other important metrics such as the capitalization rate and the debt coverage ratio.

  2. Capitalization Rate (Cap Rate) - This is the rate of return on a commercial property based on the property's NOI. The cap rate is used to determine the property's value and to compare the profitability of different properties.

  3. Debt Coverage Ratio (DCR) - This ratio measures the ability of a property to generate enough income to cover its debt payments. It is calculated by dividing the property's NOI by its debt service (the annual amount of principal and interest payments on the property's debt).

  4. Loan-to-Value Ratio (LTV) - This ratio is the amount of debt on a property relative to its value. It is calculated by dividing the loan amount by the property's appraised value or purchase price.

  5. Cash-on-Cash Return - This is the rate of return on the actual cash invested in a property. It is calculated by dividing the property's annual cash flow (after debt service) by the total amount of cash invested in the property.

  6. Internal Rate of Return (IRR) - This is the rate of return that a project is expected to generate over its entire life. It takes into account the time value of money and considers all cash flows associated with the project, including income, expenses, and capital expenditures.

These calculations are commonly used in commercial real estate financing to assess the financial viability of a project and to determine the terms of a loan.


Calculations used in commercial real estate financing may vary from lender to lender depending on their internal policies, risk tolerance, and underwriting standards. Lenders may use different assumptions and methodologies when calculating financial ratios and metrics, which can lead to different results and conclusions about the financial feasibility of a project.


For example, different lenders may have different requirements for the debt coverage ratio (DCR) and loan-to-value ratio (LTV) that they are willing to accept. Some lenders may require a higher DCR or a lower LTV than others to mitigate their risk exposure. Additionally, lenders may use different methods to estimate the property's value, such as using different appraisal methods or relying on different market data.


Furthermore, lenders may apply different risk premiums or adjustments based on their assessment of the borrower's creditworthiness, the property type, location, or other factors that may affect the property's income and value. This can result in variations in the interest rate, loan terms, and required equity contribution.


Therefore, it is important for borrowers to shop around and compare offers from different lenders to find the best financing option that suits their needs and goals. They should also be aware of the different assumptions and criteria used by each lender to make an informed decision and negotiate the best terms possible.


If you have any questions about this article or would like to discuss a scenario of your own with our team, please feel free to contact Colin Dubel at colin@harborwestcommercial.com or 949-735-6415.

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